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|Theories relying on an understanding of language according to (a) are inspired by a sociolinguistic view which characterizes language as an abstract system uniting the sum of variation in a certain regionally and socially bound speaker community. As such Jake DeBrusk Bruins Jersey , language is speaker externally bound to a community of language practice. By contrast, a linguistic understanding of language that is based on (b) emphasizes the containment of language in a speaker's mind as the center of perceiving and producing speech. As an essentially cognitive conception of language, (b) has given rise to various mentalistic models of language such as Universal Grammar and its modifications, the Dual Mechanism Hypothesis (Pinker, 2001), Optimality Theory (Prince & Smolensky Charlie McAvoy Bruins Jersey , 1993), evolutional logic in language development (Ritt, 2004) and in language use (e.g., naturalness, economy, markedness Tim Schaller Bruins Jersey , cf. Dressier, 1985).
Over the last few decades, (b) has also inspired the rapid growth and theory development in cognitive linguistics, e.g., conceptual metaphor theory (Lakoff & Johnson, 2003 ; Koveczes Torey Krug Bruins Jersey , 2005), usage-based network MBT Chapa(http: mbt-chapa-c-24) modelling of language (Bybee, 1985,2001), semantic frames (Fillmore, 1982) David Krejci Bruins Jersey , Cognitive Grammar (Langacker, 1999, 2008), prototypes and categorization (Lakoff, 1987; Geeraerts, 2006) Danton Heinen Bruins Jersey , Construction Grammar, (Goldberg, 2006; Croft, 2001), conceptual blending theory (Fauconnier & Turner, 2002) Zdeno Chara Bruins Jersey , to name the most prominent approaches. This division in two basic conceptualizations of language as a speaker-externally bound and a speaker-internally bound system is not to say that linguistic models follow an eitheror choice in theory construction. It is in fact quite common that both domains are accounted for in one way or other. Among others, functional grammar, for example, consistently draws on both domains of boundedness of language (cf. Halliday & Matthiessen, 2004). Both from a speaker-external and from a speaker-internal perspective, linguistic reasoning is generally grounded on a conception of language as an open (unbounded) entitysystem constantly subject to change and where a limited set of forms and combinational schemas allow for unlimited ways of expression. The basic vision of language as socially bound and as mentally bound is also reflected in the two general pathways of language change as happening internally to the system and as externally induced. As a synonym for externally induced language change Brandon Carlo Bruins Jersey , language contact is thus conceptualized as happening on the social pane of transmission of language elements from one language to another.
This metaphor is frequently invoked for characterizing the role of globalizing English when it is a socially distant source language donating anglicisms to various receptor languages (cf. Onysko, 2007). Coetsem's (2000) theory of transmission in language contact most explicitly follows from this basic conceptualization of language contact. As a speaker-internal process, on the other hand, language contact is metaphorically depicted as involving the interaction of diverse language systems within a speaker's mind. Models of language contact that mainly reflect this imagery relate to the fields of bi- and multilingual speech phenomena as researched in, for example, the works of Clyne (2003) Riley Nash Bruins Jersey , Muysken (2000), Myers-Scotton (2002), and Paradis (2004), to name just a few major publications. Again, comprehensive MBT Lami(http: mbt-lami-c-8) models of language contact have to strive for combining insights based on both the social and the cognitive domain as has been stressed explicitly in Thomason & Kaufmann (1988) and Thomason (2001). In this way, more isolated attempts of describing language contact as the interaction of abstract language systems removed from both social and cognitive grounds have to be grounded in a socio-cognitive context of a specific language contact scenario.
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WASHINGTON， Jan. 23 (Xinhua) -- The Philadelphia 76ers' Joel Embiid and the San Antonio Spurs' Kawhi Leonard were named respectively as the NBA Eastern and Western Conference Players of the Week on Monday evening.
The 76ers were 3-0 with Embiid in their 3-1 week. The 22-year-old rookie center averaged 22.0 points， 10.3 rebounds (tied for sixth in the East) and an NBA-leading 3.67 blocks. He made 29 free throws to match the Chicago Bulls' Jimmy Butler for the most in the East. Embiid posted two double-doubles to raise his season total to a rookie-best nine.
Leonard helped the Spurs to a 3-0 week. He led the Western Conference in scoring (36.3 ppg) and added 6.0 rebounds and 4.7 assists. He shot 56.5 percent from the field， 43.8 percent from three-point range and 96.0 percent from the free throw line. On Jan. 21 in a 118-115 overtime win over the Cleveland Cavaliers， Leonard grabbed a career-high 41 points.
NAIROBI， Jan. 18 (Xinhua) -- Kenya's golden era in basketball when the country was considered a regional and continental powerhouse was in the 1970s and 1980s during which both the men's and women's teams reigned supreme.
However， due to lack of a solid and focused youth program to feed develop basketball talent and feed the national team with players， the game took a nose-dive.
""Many good players begin playing basketball in high school， which is a very later stage compared to powerhouses like Angola and Senegal. In sports， there is a direct correlation between age and success，"" former national team player， Moses Maloba told Xinhua on Wednesday.
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